Friday, December 12, 2008

Production of dextran and fructose from carob pod extract and cheese whey by Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B512(f)

Mariana Santosa, Alírio Rodriguesb and José A. Teixeiraa, ,
aCentro de Engenharia Biológica, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
bLaboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Received 8 July 2003; revised 11 January 2005; accepted 12 January 2005. Available online 27 April 2005.


The production of dextran and fructose from carob pod extract (CPE) and cheese whey (CW) as carbon source by the bacterium Leuconostoc mesenteroides was investigated. The influence of secondary carbon sources (maltose, lactose and galactose) on dextran molecular weight and fermented broth viscosity were also studied.
Significant changes were not observed in broth viscosity during dextran production at initial sucrose concentration of 20 and 120 g/l. Complementary sugars maltose, lactose and galactose together with sucrose promote production of dextran with fewer glucose units. Dextran molecular weight decreases from the range 1,890,000–10,000,000 to 240,000–400,000 Da when complementary sugars are present. Polydispersity was improved when complementary sugars were used.
Fermentation using mixtures of carob pod extract and cheese whey confirm these results obtained for production of dextran. Final concentrations of dextran and fructose indicate that reaction yields were not affected. Carob pod and cheese whey can be successfully used as raw material in the fermentation system described.
The maximum concentrations of dextran and fructose obtained using carob pod extract resulted in 8.56 and 7.78 g/l, respectively. Combined carob pod extract and cheese whey resulted in dextran and fructose concentrations of 7.23 and 6.98 g/l, respectively. The corresponding dextran mean molecular weight was 1,653,723 and 325,829.

Keywords: Dextran; Fructose; Leuconostoc mesenteroides; Viscosity; Molecular weight; Carob pod; Cheese whey
Corresponding author. Tel.: +351 253 604400; fax: +351 253 678986.

Biochemical Engineering Journal
Volume 25, Issue 1, August 2005, Pages 1-6

Saturday, December 6, 2008

Sucrose-based surfactants (Phase I)


Rosemarie S. Gumera and Blesilda S. Gregorio
The project deals with the production of sucrose-based surfactants from seven (7) types of oil or fatty acids (castor, linseed, soya bean, corn, tallow, oleic acid and hydrogenated palm oil). The process involves saponification for twenty (20) minutes at 105-110 oC and esterfication for two (2) and eight (8) hours at 90-100 oC using two catalyst as potassium and sodium carbonates.
Results revealed that ester level of products obtained from the different oil fatty acids varies depending on the type/amount of oil or fatty acids and catalyst used and esterification time. Only products from castor oil, palm oil and tallow were analyzed for ester content as corn, linseed, soya bean oil yielded a heterogeneous product with excess fatty acid and oleic acid that produced an irritating fume upon sponification thus the decision to discontinue the test run. For palm oil samples treated separately with the catalyst and esterified for two (2) hours, a higher ester value ranging from 161 to 177 mg. KOH per gram sample is attained. Tallow samples esterifies for (2) hours with two catalysts combined, on the other hand, gave a higher ester value (139 and 109 mg KOH per gram sample). Contrary, castor oil samples esterified for eight (8) hours treated with the combined catalyst yielded a higher value.

North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1100
Tel. Nos# (632)928-7990; (632)928-0666

Sunday, November 30, 2008

Estimation of Alanine and Glycine in Cane Juice Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Aamarpali Ratna Puri,

National Public School (resi), Kapurthala, Punjab, India and Dr Gauri's (pharmacy) Kanpur


The ICUMSA or AOAC (Association of Official Agricultural Chemists) traditional test methods for testing individual constituents, pol and brix, are time consuming, operator dependent and involve the use of hazardous chemicals. The increased awareness of environmental and health topics makes it desirable to avoid the clarification of cane juice with basic lead acetate. Widely used in the food and agricultural industries, Near Infrared Spectroscopy NIR has now made considerable inroads into the more lengthy and wet chemistry procedures. Near Infrared is the region of combination bands and overtones due to interatomic forces. Hydrogenic atoms being the lightest vibrate within the near infrared region due to N-H, O-H and C-H groups. These are common atoms present within most food products. As near infrared wavelengths are specific, individual components can be identified so it can be used for quantitative analysis of phosphates, silicates and amino acids in cane juice. Amino acids are important as they, along with other nitrogenous bodies, react with reducing sugars to form colored compounds. Analyzing amino acids in a sample can help solve color problem in sugar. Alanine and glycine are commonly found amino acids in sugarcane. In the present research the online estimation of alanine and glycine is done in cane juice using Near-Infrared spectroscopy. Near Infrared Spectrophotometer of Elico (India) range (600-2500nm) has been used in its transmittance mode in conjunction with two multivariate calibration procedures, i.e., Partial Least Square Regression analysis (PLSR) and Stepwise Multivariate Linear Regression analysis (SMLR) for the analysis of alanine and glycine in cane juice. Multi linear regression analysis was also carried out to find out the most correlating wavelengths along with the standard deviation.

Submitted: September 12, 2006 · Accepted: January 29, 2007 · Published: March 26, 2007

Recommended Citation
Puri, Aamarpali Ratna (2007) "Estimation of Alanine and Glycine in Cane Juice Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy," International Journal of Food Engineering: Vol. 3 : Iss. 1, Article 2.
Available at:

Monday, November 17, 2008


a Laboratory of Optimization, Design and Advanced Control, School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, Brazil
b Interdisciplinary Center for Energy Planning, State University of Campinas, Brazil


Fermentation done at 34ºC (sometimes at higher temperatures) limits the ethanol content of the final wine, increases energy consumption during the distillation step, increases stillage volume, promotes infection, flocculation and yeast inhibition, so the advantages of operating fermentation at temperatures of 28ºC (at least 32ºC) are evident.
A review on factors such as: wet and dry bulb temperature daily and monthly profiles, design of cooling towers and heat exchangers, the use of more efficient cooling tower internals, steam jet water cooling production system, and the use of cooled water accumulators were done. Kinetics of heat evolution during ethanol production was analysed, and a model considering these factors was developed.
This model helps to design the cooling system in order to attain the desired fermentation temperature, larger ethanol content on final wine and less stillage volume per volume of ethanol produced.
Three options are explored in this work, considering the use of a cooling tower to provide cooled water during the coolest hours of the day and the use of secondary equipment to provide cooled water during the warmest hours of the day. The equipment considered were a water accumulator, a steam jet ejector and an absorption machine.
In the case of a water accumulator, the cooling tower size would be greater, but for both steam jet and absorption machine, there would be an increase in consumption of utilities.
All options would cause an increase in initial cost, and an economic analysis is to be made in part 2 of this work in order to help in making a final decision.

KEYWORDS: Bio-ethanol, fermentation cooling, energy consumption
ISSCT XXVIth CONGRESS Durban, South Africa 29th July - 2nd August 2007)

Monday, November 10, 2008


By D.F Day, G. Dequeiroz, C-H. Chung and M. Kim
Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, La., USA


A biorefinery will have to produce a range of products, including ethanol, for economic viability. Any process for manufacturing ethanol from bagasse will also yield lignin fragments which contain aromatic compounds, and some cellobiose due to incomplete cellulose conversion. The pretreatment and hydrolysis methods dictate the actual compositions of these streams. An ethanol, organo-solv process, a singlet oxygen pretreatment and an ammonia explosion process were tested, not only for their ability to increase sugar availability for fermentation, but also for the “by-products” produced.
A range of monophenolic compounds derived from the lignin were detected, ranging from 30 mg to 100 mg of vanillin equivalent per gram of dry bagasse. The mono phenols produced by the various treatments were characterized using GC/MS. The compound with commercial value that turned up in all treatments was vanillin.
Typically, enzyme hydrolysis of ligno-cellulose produces primarily glucose and a small amount of cellobiose. Cellobiose in its own right is a potentially valuable product as a non-nutritive sugar. Co-production of a b-glucosidase inhibitor, gluconic acid, during enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose altered the amounts of glucose and cellobiose produced. Addition of a b-glucosidase inhibitor, gluconolactone or gluconic acid, significantly increased the amount of cellobiose with a corresponding decrease in amount of glucose produced. In situ production of cellobiose during enzymatic conversion, using the enzyme glucose oxidase, yielded the same effect. With a suitable concentration of glucose oxidase it was possible to convert over 19.3% of the cellulose to cellobiose.

KEYWORDS: biorefinery, by-products; mono-phenols, lignin

ISSCT XXVIth CONGRESS Durban, South Africa 29th July - 2nd August 2007)

Saturday, November 1, 2008


Untung Murdiyatmo
(Indonesian Sugar Research Institute)

Samples of soils and composts have been used as sources of microbes for isolating dextranase producing bacteria. By using a selective medium and enrichment technique, six gram positive isolates capable of producing extracellular dextranase have been found. Partial identification of these isolates show that one of them belongs to Micrococcus sp (isolate B1), and the rest belong to Streptococcus spp..(isolates B2, B3, B4 and B6). Dextranase productivity of the isolates was 182,3 ; 244,5 ; 20,5 ; 72,3 ; 13,9 and 15,7 unit/ml respectively.

Key words : Bacterial dextranase, Micrococcus, Streptococcus.

(Indonesian Sugar Research Journal Vol.XXXII (3-4) September - Desember 1996 :1 - 7)

Monday, October 27, 2008

The effect of Gibberellic acid and rice bran on the production of ethanol from cane molasses and sugarcane juice


Ma. Florencia T. Logrono, Ma. Lucia C. Sanchez, Ma. Adelfa A. Apoloinario, Marilou Agravante, Ma. Lourdes T. Escarrilla

Gibberellic acid and rice bran were observed to have stimulative effects on ethanol production using sugarcane juice and molasses as substrates. Gibberellic acid is known for its stimulative effect on the fermentative capacity of yeasts. Rice bran increases rate of ethanol fermentation and supplies nutrients which support yeast growth sufficiently during the process.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the feed yeast, Candida tropicales were utilized in this study. Fermentation of molasses and cane juice inoculated with S. cerevisiae supplemented with rice bran at 0.4-0.8% concentrations and 1-4 ppm gibberellic acid produced significantly higher alcohol than control. The same substrates inoculated with C. tropicales supplemented with the same concentrations of supplements yielded higher alcohol than control. Results on alcohol produced were comparable to each other but significantly different from control. All treatments were significant at 1% level over the control.
Rice bran supplemented molasses at 0.8% concentration inoculated with S. cerevisiae produced alcohol of 10.5% with corresponding fermentation efficiency of 94.95%. on the other hand, supplementation of 2 ppm gibberellic acid produced alcohol of 9.7% with 88.30% fermentation efficiency. The same concentrations of two supplements in sugarcane juice gave the highest yield of alcohol.
Addition of gibberellic acid and rice bran at 2 ppm and 0.8% concentrations, respectively enhanced alcohol production using molasses and cane juice as substrates. Increase in alcohol produced over control in rice bran and gibberellic acid supplemented molasses and cane juice ranged from 10-23%; 15-20%; 7-13%, respectively.

North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1100
Tel. Nos# (632)928-7990; (632)928-0666

Wednesday, October 22, 2008

The Use of Na and K-form Strong Acid Cation Resin for Chromatographic Separation of Sucrose from Cane Molasses

Hendro Santoso* and Theresia Hari Sutji W*
*Indonesia Sugar Research Institute
Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan Indonesia


The cane molasses is the residual syrup from sucrose crystallization process. It has sucrose content about 30-40 per cents and reducing sugar about 20-30 percents. Those sugar could be separated from molasses by using Ion Exclusion Chromatographic method. This paper describes the use of Na and K-form strong acid cation resin for separation of sucrose from cane molasses. The experiments was employed on two pilot scale chromatographic column. The A column with diameter of 40 cm and diameter of B column is 25 cm. Both of columns were contained 90 litres of Na-form resin (A column) and 150 litres of K-form resin (B column) with operating condition by flow rate 0,6 and 0,5 bed volum per hour respectively. The feed volume and temperature for both columns were 0,1 bed volume and 70oC. Pol,brix,sucrose, reducing sugar and Total Sugar As Invert (TSAI) were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that the both of colomns system were improve the quality of sucrose fraction to be separated by increasing the purity of sucrose and decreasing of reducing sugar purity. On the A column system, sucrose purity compare to TSAI could increased up to 65,28% and with the B column system up to 67,77%. Furthere, reducing sugar content decreased up to 30,64% and 48,64% by using A and B column respectively. Sucrose Reducing sugar Ration could achieved 1,72 point by using B column system. It better than A column.

Key words : K and Na-cation resin, chromatography, sucrose fraction, cane molasses.

Sunday, October 19, 2008


Gading F Hutasoit

(Indonesian Sugar Research Institute, ISRI)


Wood demand has been increased in the last decade, while supply. One of the ways to meet demands is to look for a material as a wood substitute. The wood substitute should be cheap due to moneter and economic crisis. Particle board out of bagasse, is agood material for substitute wood. The acceptability of particle board as a wood substitute depend upon the quality, besides prices. There are many factors which affect the quality of particle board. The objective oh this research is to study the effect of bagasse fineness and proportion of glue on the quality of particle board. Bagasse was grinded and sieved. There were two types of bagasse which use in particle board making, they are coarse and fine fraction. Coarse fraction was retained in sieve of 14 mesh. Fine fractions was passed 14 mesh and retained in 28 mesh, while fraction passed 28 mesh was not used. Dry fraction was mixed with glue. The proportion of glue was varied they were 23 ; 28 ; 32 and 37% of dry weight fraction. Mixture of bagasse and glue was pressed. The physical and mechanical characters were measured. The result showed that characters of mixture of coarse fraction and 37% glue fulfilled the requirement of SII (Industrial Standard of Indonesia) 0797-83. The characters were density 0,55 g/cm3 ; thickness swelling (2 hours) 8%; thickness swelling (24 hours) 16% ; moisture 5,5% ; bending strength 121 kg/cm2 and screw holding 41 kg.

Key words : Bagasse, sieving, fraction, glue, particle board.

(Indonesian Sugar Research Journal Vol.XXXIV (2) Juni 1998 :43-50)

Wednesday, October 15, 2008


Hendro Santoso M , Yahya Kurniawan and Edi Purnomo
(Indonesian Sugar Research Institute)


The clarification process of thick juice to reduce non sugar components had been done. Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) and Phosphoric acid were used as clarifying agents in this experiment. Composition of thick juice from a field processor i.e. colour of ICUMSA varied from 11.000 to 18.000 IU, turbidity between 900 to 2000 ppm SiO2 , sludge content between 1,75 to 3,5 g per 100 ml and ash content between 2 to 3 %. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the potency of PAC (25 – 100 ppm) and Phosphoric acid to clarify of thick juice (50 – 60 brix). The non sugar components such as colour, turbidity, sludge and ash content were reduced by both agents. Sludge content was reduced between 11,56 to 78,9% by PAC and 21,49 to 50,64% by Phosphoric acid treatment. The loss of total sugar was less than 5% for both treatments. PAC could reduced colour of ICUMSA between 0,98 to 17,65%, turbidity 33,03 to 53,54% and ash 1,82 to 12,48%. Furthermore, by using Phosphoric acid treatment it could reduced colour of ICUMSA between 13,07 to 29,73 %, turbidity 36,53 to 47,10 % and ash 11,11 to 12,59 %. Sludge and turbidity removals treated with PAC were higher than that with phosphate. In contrast, PAC treatment in colour reducing of thick juice was lower than phosphate. There was no difference in ash removed for both treatment.

Key words : Polyaluminium chloride, thick cane juice, field processor.

(Indonesian Sugar Research Journal Vol.XXXIV (2) Juni 1998 :32-42)

Wednesday, October 8, 2008

Sucrose-based surfactants (Phase I)


Rosemarie S. Gumera and Blesilda S. Gregorio

The project deals with the production of sucrose-based surfactants from seven (7) types of oil or fatty acids (castor, linseed, soya bean, corn, tallow, oleic acid and hydrogenated palm oil). The process involves saponification for twenty (20) minutes at 105-110 oC and esterfication for two (2) and eight (8) hours at 90-100 oC using two catalyst as potassium and sodium carbonates.

Results revealed that ester level of products obtained from the different oil fatty acids varies depending on the type/amount of oil or fatty acids and catalyst used and esterification time. Only products from castor oil, palm oil and tallow were analyzed for ester content as corn, linseed, soya bean oil yielded a heterogeneous product with excess fatty acid and oleic acid that produced an irritating fume upon sponification thus the decision to discontinue the test run. For palm oil samples treated separately with the catalyst and esterified for two (2) hours, a higher ester value ranging from 161 to 177 mg. KOH per gram sample is attained. Tallow samples esterifies for (2) hours with two catalysts combined, on the other hand, gave a higher ester value (139 and 109 mg KOH per gram sample). Contrary, castor oil samples esterified for eight (8) hours treated with the combined catalyst yielded a higher value.

North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1100
Tel. Nos# (632)928-7990; (632)928-0666

Saturday, September 27, 2008

Fodder yeast production: A new approach for distillery vinasse treatment

By M. A. Otero Rambla, G. Saura Laria, J. A. Martínez Valdivielso, O. A. Almazán del Olmo

Biotechnology Division Cuban Institute for Research on Sugar Cane By-Products (ICIDCA)
Vía Blanca 804 & Carretera Central, Havana 11000, Cuba


Distillery vinasse is one of the most contaminating industrial wastes and, for a full development of an ethanol industry, this problem has to be solved. The study was conducted at lab scale in a yeast factory using raw materials from industry.
Through this technology, the organic load of vinasse was reduced by 75% when the process was carried out batch wise or slightly over 60% in continuous mode. Important amounts of high quality proteins with relatively high yields (about 60 cubic metres of vinasse per tonne of yeast on a dry matter basis) can be obtained in parallel with wastewater treatment. Distillery vinasse can be utilized as the sole source of carbon in fodder yeast production. Addition of growth enhancer QZ-350 at a ratio of 1 to 3 kg/t of yeast, substitutes 1.1 tonnes of molasses.
If protein production is the main target, continuous culture is the indicated choice. However, if environmental issues prevail, batch mode is preferred since it leads to a higher depletion of organic matter (potential pollution) in the propagation medium.

Keywords : yeast, distillery vinasse, wastewaters treatment, microbial protein, bioprocess

ISSCT XXVIth CONGRESS Durban, South Africa 29th July - 2nd August 2007)

Monday, September 22, 2008


Sugar Research and Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia



Sugar Research and Innovation (SRI) has been involved for some years in developing aspects of bagasse gasification technology. This has been undertaken with the long-term aim of implementing advanced cycle, high efficiency power generation in the sugar industry or the production of a gaseous feedstock for alcohols and other industrial commodities.
Many of the R&D outcomes achieved at SRI in the area of gasification can be traced back to the formation in 1998 of the Queensland Biomass Integrated Gasification (QBIG) program. This program was set up to develop gasification for boosting power generation in the sugar industry. Under the QBIG program, major research projects were undertaken in the areas of bagasse and cane trash gasification kinetics, ash characteristics in bagasse gasifiers, the development of a continuous pressurised bagasse feeder, cane harvest residue recovery systems to improve gasifier utilisation and economies of scale as well as a financial appraisal of gasification for power generation. It became evident from this latter study that there was significant scope for reducing costs via a staged and highly factory integrated introduction of this technology, and a study was initiated to determine optimum strategies for the large scale adoption of gasification technology across the industry.
On a more fundamental level, SRI has been collaborating with Hokkaido and Monash universities in a project aimed at utilising the potassium that occurs naturally in biomass as a catalyst in cracking high molecular weight tars produced during gasification. This catalysed reforming process occurs at relatively low temperatures (500°C to 700°C) and has the potential to deliver significant gasifier cost and efficiency advantages. The role of SRI in this project has been to develop computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and process models with which to implement laboratory data in a thermodynamically optimised gasification cycle.
This paper draws together the R&D activities undertaken at SRI to provide a positive picture with respect to the technical feasibility of implementing gasification technology for power generation and highlights some of the financial barriers to the large scale adoption of the technology in Australia.

KEYWORDS: Bagasse, gasification, catalyst, ash, kinematics, co-generation
(ISSCT XXVIth CONGRESS Durban, South Africa 29th July - 2nd August 2007)

Wednesday, September 17, 2008

Feed value of sugarcane by-products


Ma. Lourdes I Dormido and Ma. Lourdes T. Escarilla

The Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) values, indicative of the relative energy value of a food to an animal, were evaluated on cane tops of ten popular Philippine sugarcane varieties in the first study; and ten treatment combinations of cane tops, molasses and bagasse with some supplementation in the second study.
The TDN values of the cane tops sampled among the ten varieties had highly significant differences. The highest TDN value of 72.03 and crude fiber content of 39.16% were those of Phil. 7495. TDN values of Phil 7115, Phil 6553, Phil 58260, Phil 7779 and Phil 6607 were statistically comparable to Phil 7495.
The differences among the TDN values of the ten treatment combinations in the second study were highly significant. The treatment combination IX (cane tops-0; molasses-15% bagasse-85%+urea) yielded the highest TDN value (72.12), followed by combination VII (cane tops-42.5%; molasses-15%; Bagasse-42.5%+urea). Both treatments were statistically comparable.
The sugarcane farmers/millers with an integrated cattle production scheme may therefore choose their raw materials for feed from the figures presented, and also make the choices according to the availability of materials.

North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1100
Tel. Nos# (632)928-7990; (632)928-0666

Monday, September 15, 2008


Aris Toharisman and Hendro Santoso M
(Indonesian Sugar Research Institute)


Desugarization of sugar cane molasses using ion exclusion chromatography produces reduction sugar fraction (RSF). The study on the use of RSF as a medium on ethanol production in batch culture using Saccharomyces cerevisiae R5 has been carried out. The overall ethanol yield during 32 hours fermentation with 6,7% initial sugar contents was 3,34% or Yp/s = 0,48 g ethanol/ g sugars. The result was similar to the Yp/s on molasses media with 6,94% initial sugars performed as a control. Other parameter kinetics suh as the specific growth rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae R5 (mmax), sugar (substrate) up take rate (qs) and ethanol production rate (qp) of both media were also relatively similar. However, the biomass yield (Yx/s) produced on RSF medium was lower than that on molasses medium.

Key words : Desugarization, ion-exclusion chromatography, ethanol fermentation, sugar cane molasses, S.cerevisiae and batch culture.

(Indonesian Sugar Research Journal Vol.XXXIII (4) Desember 1997 :34-39)

Thursday, September 11, 2008


Wiwit Budi Widyasari and Eka Sugiyarta
(Indonesia Sugar Research Institute)
Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan Indonesia


Proline is rather unique among the amino acids in its accumulation during drought stress. Under drought-stressed condition, free proline content in leaf tissues increase proportionately faster than other amino acids. Within the leaves of unstressed plant, free proline contents are very small and its accumulation increases up to one hundred times than the normal, when the plant suffers from drought stress. The ability to accumulate free proline in drought-resistance varieties was significantly stronger than that of the susceptible varieties and that the reducing rate of free proline was significantly faster compared to the susceptible varieties during the post-stressed period. A tremendous free proline accumulation is one of the most dramatic physiological characteristics, so this can be used as selction criteria for drought resistant varieties.

Key words : Free-proline, drought-stress, amino acid, drought-resistant.

(Indonesian Sugar Research Journal Vol. XXXIII (1), Maret 1997 : 1-10
E-mail : )

Saturday, September 6, 2008


Theresia Hari Sutji W
(Indonesia Sugar Research Institute)
Jl.pahlawan 25 Pasuruan


Five samples of molasses (A,B,C,D and E) have been stored in the laboratory at temperature from 30 – 35o C for 48 weeks. The samples were analyzed for brix, sucrose, reducing sugars and total sugar as invert (TSAI) every two weeks. The test showed that the sugars decreased during storage. The average decrease was 5,54 % for TSAI; 10,8% for reducing sugars ; 3.4% for brix. The average decrease of sucrose content of three samples (A,C and E) was 3,2% and the other two samples (B and D) remain constant. The TSAI, reducing sugar, sucrose and brix of molasses A (which has the lowest original TSAI) decreased sharply during observation, e.g 10,6% for TSAI, 14,5% for reducing sugar, 5,2% for sucrose and 3,8% for brix respectively. The fact that decrease of sucrose occurred without reducing sugar increase indicates that there may be a particular reaction between sucrose or reducing sugar and other molasses component during storage.

Key words : decrease, sugar molasses, storage

(Indonesian Sugar Research Journal Vol. XXX (1), Maret 1994 : 7-14
E-mail : )

Thursday, September 4, 2008


Edi Purnomo
(Indonesia Sugar Research Institute)
Jl.pahlawan 25 Pasuruan


This research was conducted to improve the hygiene of mill station area by adjusting the pH condition of the mill juices in order to prevent sucrose inversion. The clear solution of milk of lime with concentration of 3o Beaume was used for udjusting the pH of the mill juices. The clear solution of milk of lime was distributed individually to the drawing tanks of mill juices. The pH target of the mill juices is between 6.3 to 7.0. The results showed that there were an increase of the ratio of mixed juice and fisrt expressed juice from 93.30 to 94.96 ; a decrease of the formation of reducing sugar about 93,11%; an increase of the brightness of clear juice about 26,14%; a reduction of the lime content of clear juice about 10,57% ; a reduction of the amylum content on mixed juice about 25,29% and no dextran formation between the first expressed juice to the mixed juice. Some advantages of massecuites physical properties are also described in this paper.

Key words : milk of lime clear solution, inversion, hygiene, pre –defecation.

(Indonesian Sugar Research Journal Vol. XXX (2), June 1994 : 1-9
E-mail : )

Monday, September 1, 2008

Production of sugarcane juice concentrate


Dida V. Gatanela, Ma. Lourdes T. Escarrilla, Nelsie Grace E. Gela, Teresita O. Macuro

Research for alternative high value products from sugarcane lead to the development of the process of preparing a quality beverage from sugarcane juice. The conducted study attained a quality beverage with prolonged shelf life. Clarifying and stabilizing properties of honey were utilized as honey was added to extracted cane juice, thus, eliminating costlier processes of filtration and centrifugation. Varying ratios of honey to sugarcane juice, and sodium benzoate, 0.1% (w/v), and citric acid, 0.1% (w/v) were observed for six weeks. Titratable acidity, pH values, Brix and reducing sugar content were monitored weekly.
For a period of twenty-one days, unrefrigerated preparations of sugarcane juice-honey concentrated with ratios of 9:1 and 9.5:0.5, and sodium benzoate, 0.1% (w/v), were found statistically comparable in titratable acidity values. These treatments were observed to be very significantly different from all other treatments.

North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1100
Tel. Nos# (632)928-7990; (632)928-0666

Tuesday, August 26, 2008

Evaluation of yeast strains for biomass production from cane molasses

Ma. Lourdes T. Escarrilla, Ma. Florencia T. Logrono and Teresita O. Macuro


Sugarcane product diversification and by-products utilization are now serious alternatives or options for the rationalization and improvement of the sugarcane industry. Within the program of product diversification is the integration of cattle and swine production with the sugarcane farm and/or sugar factory. Cattle feed ingredients are largely imported. The production of feed yeast from cane molasses to augment domestic feed ingredients could be a viable industry.
The Sugar and Sugar By-Products Research Division of SRA conducted a project on the production of yeast from cane molasses for animal feed. Five yeast strains were found to have significant differences in their capacities to produce biomass from cane molasses.
Ethanol production was higher in the high sugar medium than in the low at 30oC. Lambanog yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida hypolytica produced more ethanol at 38oC from the low sugar medium (7.16%, 7.56%, and 6.58%, respectively). All yeast strains except Rhodotorula rubra were observed to be thermotolerant strains. Lambanog yeast was exceptionally thermotolerant as it yielded 3.18% (w/v) ethanol at 42oC. The specific ethanol productivities of Lambanog and S. cerevisiae were highest at 38oC from molasses at 5% total sugar content.
Lambanog produced highest biomass consistently from 16 to 32 hours fermentation at 38oC although not significantly different from the other strains. After 36 hours, C. lypolytica and C. tropicales produced more biomass than Lambanog and S. cerevisiae. Lambanog yeast was observed to be most alcohol tolerant, followed by C. lipolytica.
C. lipolytica and C. tropicales, considered as feed yeast strains, offer possibilities as ethanol-producing strains, as well as biomass producers; C. lipolytica was observed to better maintain cell growth at high sugar medium than Lambanog yeast. In low sugar medium at high temperature (38oC), C. lipolytica can still maintain cell growth and produce alcohol as much as S. cerevisiae and Lambanog yeast. Lambanog on the other hand offers possibilities as yeast source in the primary process, as well as by-product process in yeast production.

North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1100
Tel. Nos# (632)928-7990; (632)928-0666

Tuesday, August 19, 2008

Treatment of Wine Distillery Wastewater:
A Review with Emphasis on Anaerobic Membrane Reactors

X. L. Melamane, P.J. Strong and J.E. Burgess
Departement of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology, ‘rhodes University, P.O Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa


This review summaries research efforts and case studies in the treatment of wine distillery wastewaters. Experiences in treating wine distillery wastewaters can contribute to the field of oenology, as many oenologists are concerned with the selection, efficiency and economy of their wastewaters. Characteristics of wastewaters from different distilleries and various methods for treating these wastes are discussed. Wine distillery wastewaters are strongly acidic, have a high chemical oxygen demand, high polyphenol content and are highly variable. Primary attention is focused on the sustainable biological treatment of wine distillery wastewaters, mainly by energy-efficient anaerobic digestion in different reactor configurations from bench to pilot and full-scale treatment. Finally, areas where further research and attention are required are identified.

Keywords: Anaerobics; chemical oxygen demand; effluent; membrane; polyphenol; stillage; vinnase

S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic., Vol.28, No. 1, 2007

Friday, August 15, 2008

Biodegradation and Biological Treatments of Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin: an overview

J. Perez J. Munoz-Dorado1
T. de la Rubia J. Martinez2

1Departamento de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada,
Campus Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada, Spain.
E-mail :
Tel : +34-958243183
2Departamento de Microbiologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Granada,
Campus Cartuju, 18071 Granada, Spain.

Int Microbiol (2002) 5 : 53 – 56


In nature, cellulose, lignocellulose and lignin are major sources of plant biomass; therefore, their recycling is indispensable for the carbon cycle. Each polymer is degraded by a variety of microorganisms which produce a battery of enzymes that work synergically. In the near future, processes that use lignocellulolytic enzymes or are based on microorganisms could lead to new, environmentally friendly technologies. This study reviews recent advances in the various biological treatments that can turn these three lignicellulose biopolymers into alternative fuels. In addition, biotechnological innovations based on natural delignification and applied to pulp and paper manufacture are also outlined.

Keywords: Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin Biodegradation

Friday, August 8, 2008


Embrapa Satellite Monitoring, Brazil1
Instituto Politecnico de Hanava, Cuba2
USP Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos, NETF, Brazil3


This article introduces a proposal concerning a new social and ecological agro-industry structure. This framework was planned to produce energy and food in a sustainable way, it is called GERIPA Project. It was developed with the purpose of integrating production of alcohol, food and electricity, with a working period of twelve months; eight with sugar cane and four with sorghum. The transport of materials runs on engines with vaporized alcohol. It considers thermodynamics optimization, with social and environmental quality, based on the Kyoto Protocol and the premises of Sustained Development. It occupies 4310 ha, integrating the whole productive process like a live organism. With 40.000 liters of alcohol produced daily, as well as 5.2 MW of electricity, 4760 tons per year of food. Once under economically stable operation, it can generate up to 5600 permanent jobs. With these characteristics, the project could provide the basic needs of a city of 17300 inhabitants, becoming a strategic setting for autonomous regional development.

In Ortega, E. & Ulgiati, S. (editors): Proceedings of IV Biennial International Workshop “Advances in Energy Studies”. Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brazil. June 16-19, 2004. Pages 323-328

Friday, August 1, 2008


Adriano Pinto Mariano1,3, Sergio Henrique Rezende Crivelaro2,3, Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis2 and Daniel Marcos Bonotto1
1-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas (IGCE)
2-Departmento de Bioquimica e Microbiologia – Instituto de Biociencias (IB)
3-Programma de Recursos Humanos (PRH – 05) – Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas

Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
Av. 24-A, 1515 – CP 178 – CEP 13506-900 – Rio Claro – SP – Brasil


This work investigated the possibility of using vinasse as an amendment in bioremediation processes by supplying nutrients and as an extra labile carbon source that could increase the microorganisms population. Soil samples were collected at three petrol stations. At two of them, diesel oil spills occurred from underground storage tanks and at the third, samples were collected during the replacement of underground pipes and it was simulated a diesel oil contamination by adding diesel oil purchased from a local petrol station or weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater of a petrol station. Batch biodegradation experiments were carried out in Bartha biometer flasks that were used to measure microbial CO2 production. Biodegradation efficiency was also measured by quantifying the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) by gas chromatography. Although certain fertilization of the soil and an increase of the microbial population were obtained with the vinasse, in the studied conditions, it demonstrated to not be adequate to enhance the bioremediation efficiency of diesel oil contaminated soils.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Soil, Diesel Oil and Vinasse

Monday, July 28, 2008


Utilization of Fungi for Biotreatment of Raw Wastewaters

1Laboratoire d’Environnement et de Biologie Aquatique (LEBA), UFR-Sciences et Gestion de I’environnement, Universite d’Abobo-Adjame, 02 BP 801 Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire
2Unit of Bioengineering, Catholic University of Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2 Bte 19, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium


Fungal biomasses are capable of treating metal-contaminated effluents with efficiencies several orders of magnitude superior to activated carbon (F-400) or the industrial resin Dowex-50. additionally, fungal biomasses are susceptible to engineering improvements and regeneration of their capabilities. With regard to organic pollutants, excessive nutrients and dyes, fungi can remove them from wastewaters, leading to decrease in their toxicities. However, the detoxification rates seem to be dependent on media and culture conditions. The postreatment by anaerobic bioprocesses of effluents that have been pretreated with fungi can lead to higher biogas than the original effluents. In addition to the degradation of organic pollutants, fungi produce added-value products such as enzymes (Lip, MnP, Lacc, amylase, etc.) and single-cell protein (SCP). Most research on fungal capacities to purify polluted effluents has been performed on a laboratory scale, hence there is a need to extend such research to pilot scale and to apply it to industrial processes.

Key words: wastewaters, effluents, fungi, biodegradation, biosorption, decolourisation, value-added treatment.

African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (12), pp. 620-630, December 2003
Available online at
ISSN 1684-5315 ©2004 Academic Journals

Thursday, July 24, 2008


Triantarti and Aris Toharisman
Indonesian Sugar Research Institute


Commonly, decolorization of cane sugar syrup is conducted by single anionic resin regenerated using NaCl solution. However, decolorization using the common technique is unable to be used for producing a direct consumption of cane syrup. The reason is the syrup produced will have a salty taste resulted from high concentration of Cl- ions released from anionic resin during decolorization process. The objective of this research project was to determine the ability of weak anionic resin compared to strong anionic resin after regeneration using disodium hydrogen phosphate for decolorization of cane syrup (60%Brix) with an average color of 700 iu. The cane syrup as a feed was produced through purification of raw cane juice by a combination of carbonatation and phosphatation process followed by decolorization using powder activated carbon. The results showed that the amount of Na2HPO4 used for anionic resin regeneration having a significant effect on the degree of decolorization. The optimum condition for anionic resin regeneration was using 2 BV (bed volume) NaOH 5% followed by 8 BV Na2HPO4 1%. Degree of decolorization using strong anionic resin was slightly lower compared to weak anionic resin. They were 42.4% and 47.5% respectively for capacity of 40 BV of cane syrup per cycle.

Key words: cane syrup, decolorization, weak anionic resin, strong anionic resin, disodium hydrogen phosphate,

Thursday, July 17, 2008

Microbial Protein Enrichment of Sugarcane by-Products


Ma. Lourdes I. Dormido, Ma. Lucia C. Sanchez, Corazon H Pahilanga and Ma. Lourdes T. Escarrilla

Sugarcane farm wastes such as cane tops and trash are know to be good fodder for ruminants, however, they are not used to a great extent. Filter mud, a waste product of the sugar factory, is a plant nutrient source in its decomposed form. However, tons of filter mud are left in sugar mill yards. These waste products are potential sources of animal feed and organic fertilizer.
The effect of chemical and /or microbiological treatment of sugarcane farm wastes bagasse and filter mud has been studied at the Sugar Regulatory Administration.
Trichoderm a harzianum, a strain belonging to the cellulolytic fungus decomposers, was used to inoculate several substrate/treatments of sugarcane waste products. Each substrate consisted of different combinations of farm and factory wastes. The effect of microbial inoculation on the nitrogen content of the substrates was observed at measured time intervals. The microorganism was found to enrich the protein contents of the different substrates by 129% to 461% after the third day to the 34th day.
Six strains of Trichoderma inoculated on bagasse with and without ipil-ipil were evaluated and compared for their nitrogen enriching capacity. One day after inoculation, all six strains of Trichoderma namely: T. harzianum, T. lignorum, T. koningi, T. viride, T. pseudokoningi and T. resie were able to increase the % protein of bagasse with or without ipil0ipil by 163% - 1,143%. Trichoderma pseudokoningi obtained the highest % protein at 2 and 7 days after inoculation. Thirty days after inoculation, three strains namely: T. harzianum, T. viride and T. pseudokoningi were able to enrich the protein content of bagasse with and without ipil-ipil. T. lignorum increased the protein content of bagasse only in the presence of ipil-ipil.

North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1100
Tel. Nos# (632)928-7990; (632)928-0666

Friday, July 11, 2008


Teresita O. Macuro, Ma. Lucia C. Sanchez, Dida V. Gatanela, and Ma. Lourdes T. Escarrilla


Colorants of molasses are due to flavones, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. They are phytonutrients which are responsible for giving plants (sugarcane) their odor, color and flavor. They also contribute to the plant’s natural defense system, protecting it from pests, viruses, bacteria and excessive sunlight. They could also prevent certain diseases in humans including cancer and heart disease. Phytonutrients are antioxidants which prevent or neutralize free radicals that damage the vital functions of cell structures with increase in age and cause a tremendous drain on the immune system.
Fermentation of molasses media was made for a period of one year. Sucrose and reducing sugar levels were monitored for alcohol and phenolics production. Sucrose was reduced to glucose and fructose and was further converted to alcohols and phenolic compounds. Alcohols were highly produced in high concentration molasses media for a longer period of fermentation while in low concentration molasses media, the amount of alcohols produced decreased. Phenolic compounds were initially present in molasses and they were continuously produced during the fermentation process. Phenolics could be removed completely from fermented media using sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate in the early fermentation period. The higher the concentration of molasses media, the higher the phenolic contents. The antioxidants formed in the fermented broth highly enhanced the shelf-life of molasses media by preventing molds and other microorganisms to grow.

North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1100
Tel. Nos# (632)928-7990; (632)928-0666

Wednesday, July 2, 2008



1. Dedini S/A Indústrias de Base; Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
2. Usina Barralcool, Barra do Bugres, MT, Brazil



Brazil started a National Biodiesel Program 30 years after having launched PROÁLCOOL – National Alcohol Program. By examining biodiesel and bioethanol, significant synergies can be seen in the production of these two biofuels and, for this reason, Dedini introduced the concept of “Bioethanol-Biodiesel Integration” into the market in November 2004. The biodiesel installation is attached to and integrated into the sugar and alcohol mill, with a number of advantages, bringing cost reductions and minimized investments.
In the agricultural sector, the concept of producing oil grains during cane renovation already exists, from which vegetable oil is extracted, i.e. the main feedstock for biodiesel. The second feedstock is bioethanol produced at the mill, and the integration enables optimization by using existing installations, utilities and human resources. The energy is produced from sugarcane bagasse. A portion of the biodiesel produced fuels trucks, tractors and harvesters of the mill. Summarizing, there is synergy in the cane crop and in the industry, as well as benefits in economics, energy and the production process. Considering such attractiveness, Barralcool Mill, in Brazil has built a biodiesel plant integrated into the mill, supplied by Dedini, which started operations in November 2006, with the following highlights:
• First in the world integrated with a sugar and alcohol mill;
• Flexible to use multiple feed stocks: vegetable oils and animal fat (beef tallow);
• World first continuous plant using ethyl route; and flexible to methyl route;
• 50 000 tonnes/year capacity.
Barralcool Mill then becomes the first in the world producing 3 BIOs: bioethanol, biodiesel, and bioelectricity (surplus electricity produced from bagasse sold to the grid). This paper presents the Barralcool Mill case: biodiesel production using ethyl route, integration to the mill, and the derived benefits.

KEYWORDS: biodiesel, biodiesel integration in a mill, ethyl route, biodiesel and bioethanol.

ISSCT XXVIth CONGRESS Durban, South Africa 29th July - 2nd August 2007)

Friday, June 13, 2008


Dedini S.A. Ind. de Base;


Anhydrous fuel ethanol starting from molasses can be produced through several combined routes by application of different technologies for fermentation, distillation and dehydration processes. Indeed, they constitute chains of processes that must be driven by a specific objective, such as minimizing power consumption, steam consumption, losses, improving product quality or plant robustness, among others. The technology applied, however, has an initial investment, which can result in a less competitive plant, if that chain was not constructed under a strict sense of consistency and focused on real results. The present work shows a cross link among the main technologies pointing out their main features, and consistency in chains of production, in order to reach some specific purpose as described above, involving 1 - fermentation: continuous, batch, with or without yeast or vinasse recirculation, using centrifuges or floculant yeast; 2 - distillation: vacuum, pressurized, in cascade, with side streams or not; 3 – Dehydration: mol sieves, extractive and azeotropic distillation and vapour permeation through membranes, with liquid or vapour phase feed. The study concluded that each technology has its optimum in performance for each application in a different chain of technology for the whole process. For instance, some applications of vacuum distillation, fermentation under high yeast stress or with very special yeasts, dehydration under unsuitable route, etc. may be useless for some purposes and may have higher costs in maintenance, product quality control, high process sensitivity etc., despite their higher initial investments. On the other hand, neglecting these technologies may lead the project to a poor approach and consequently to a plant or process unbalanced and inefficient. It is very important to note that both pictures represent a business of lower competitiveness, especially in the case where the chosen technology chain is not robust enough.

KEYWORDS: Ethanol Process, Fermentation, Distillation, Dehydration

ISSCT XXVIth CONGRESS Durban, South Africa 29th July - 2nd August 2007)

Monday, June 2, 2008


R. Mungaroo, K.T.K.F. Kong Win Chang, A.S. Saumtally, J-F.Y. Moutia, M.H.R. Khoodoo and G.Triton
Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute, Reduit, Mauritius


For the sustainability of the Mauritian sugar industry, more co-products need to be produced from sugarcane biomass. One of the co-products that is currently being investigated at the Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute (MSIRI) is poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), more commonly known as PHAs or bioplastics.
Cane juice, molasses and bagasse were chosen as raw materials for this study. The sucrose present in cane juice and molasses was quantitatively converted into simple sugars by dilute acids. Pretreated bagasse was converted into simple sugars by either acid or enzymatic hydrolysis, with emphasis being laid on the latter. Enzymes have been produced in situ by Trichoderma viride and T. harzianum. Media were prepared with the simple sugars obtained from the hydrolysis of sucrose and bagasse, and were inoculated with Ralstonia eutropha H16 G+ and Azospirillum spp. The bacterial cells were harvested, washed, freeze-dried and subjected to solvent extraction. Upon the removal of the solvents, biopolymers were obtained.
Once the yields for the production of simple sugars and PHAs have been optimized, the production of these biopolymers will be scaled up. Upon the successful completion of this study, the expertise will be shared with the sugar/plastic industry with the aim of making the commercial production of PHAs a reality in Mauritius. This could not only make the local sugar-cane industry more sustainable, but it could also enable the country to be less dependent on traditional petroleum-derived non-biodegradable (polluting) plastics.

KEYWORDS: Sugar-cane biomass, Hydrolysis, Ralstonia eutropha H16 G+, Azospirillum spp., Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates)
(ISSCT XXVIth CONGRESS Durban, South Africa 29th July - 2nd August 2007)

Thursday, May 29, 2008

Dextran Production from Molasses


Teresita O. Macuro, Ma. Lucia C. Sanchez, Ma. Florencia T. Logrono, Dida V. Gatanela, Marilou A. Agravante, Ma. Lourdes T. Escarrilla

The production of dextran is dependent on the amount of glucose in the fermentation broth. Leuconostoc mesenteroides acted on glucose, converting them into glucose-saccharides or glucans. The inversion of sucrose was enhanced by L. mesenteroides microorganisms and the use of hydrochloric acid. During the pH adjustment, considerable amount of sucrose was inverted to glucose and the inversion continued during the fermentation but not all of the sucrose were reduced and used up for dextran production. Inoculated media in the 15o Brix at pH 5 gave the highest yield of dextran and inoculated media in the 20o Brix at pH 5 gave the lowest. The yields of dextran in the inoculated treatments were several times higher than the uninoculated treatments or control.
Dextran content, reducing sugar and sucrose content were monitored up to 48 hours. There was significant correlation between reducing sugar content and dextran production in the inoculated molasses substrate at 15oBrix media both at pH 5. Dextran production also was highest at 24 hrs. In 25oBx at pH 4 inoculated media. Dextran production in all inoculated treatments were very significantly higher than uninoculated treatments.
The microbial activity of L. mesenteroides in the inoculated media was significantly higher that the uninoculated media on all levels of concentrations and pH. Generally, the microbial activity of the inoculated media within the 24-hour fermentation period was high and deteriorated after the 24-hour period. The microbial activity of the control throughout the fermentation period was comparable with the inoculated, however, microbial activity of the uninoculated media was low on all levels of concentrations and pH throughout the fermentation process. The microbial activity of L mesenteroides could be expressed in terms of dextran production, sucrose content and reducing content (glucose) of the fermentation media.
The study also refined the methodology for laboratory-scale extraction of dextran. Refined and absolute alcohol were used to extract dextran. Although the use of refined alcohol is cheaper as an extractant for dextran, absolute alcohol gave higher yield of dextran than refined alcohol.

North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1100
Tel. Nos# (632)928-7990; (632)928-0666

Wednesday, May 21, 2008

Effect of different temperatures storage of soil samples on residue of atrazine and diuron herbicides on three soils types in Indonesia

D. Sasongko dan Hendro Santoso M.
Indonesian Sugar Research Institute
Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126 Indonesia
E-mail :


Usually soil samples for herbicide residue analysis have to be stored in freeze storage (-7 C) before they were analyzed. However the analysis was facing with a problem i.e : capacity of the freeze storage is to small for a great number of soil samples. Herbicide residue was measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of storage temperatures of soil sample on residues of atrazine and diuron on the rate of loss. There were two different temperatures of soil samples storage in this study i.e. –7 C (freeze storage) and 27.5 C (average room temperature).
The results showed that herbicide residue of three soil type in Indonesia (Vertisol, Entisol, Ultisol) in the freeze storage were not decreased for up 15 days after incubation. Contrastly, in the average room temperature, rapid disappearance of the atrazine residues were observed during 9 days (61 – 69 % of the initial dose), while the diuron residue decreased about 21 – 38 % when herbicide residue analysis was conducted 7 days after incubation. Moreover residue of atrazine and diuron in the soil samples stored in the average room temperature were still high (more than 90 % and more than 88 %, respectively) when samples were analysed 5 days after incubation. Based on this fact, soil samples for herbicide residue analysis can be stored in the average room temperature (27.5 C) for 5 days especially for analysing herbicide residue on a great number of soil samples, and the sample must be extracted and analysed within 5 days.

Sunday, May 18, 2008

Combination of Strong Base Anion Exchange Resins and Active carbon
for Decolorization of Liquid Sugar

Hendro Santoso M dan Triantarti
(Indoensian Sugar Research Institute-Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126)


Molasses which contains 60 - 70 % sugars, is a good raw material for liquid sugar but the barrier is its brown colour. One of the technology for making liquid sugar from molasses is a combination of purification process using ion exclusion chromatography and decolorization process using ion exchange resins and active carbon. This paper describes the use of strong base anion exchange resins followed by active carbon treatments for decolorizing liquid sugar resulted from ion exclusion chromatography. Experiments were conducted in complete randomized design with two replications. Two different type of strong base anion resins (IRA 900 and IRA 400) were used and it was followed by active carbon treatments were variation on the amount of active carbon added to liquid sugar was 20; 40; 60; 80 and 100 g per litres of liquid sugar. The observed parameters were ICUMSA colour, turbidity, ash and Total Sugar As Invert (TSAI). The results show that decolorization treatments using a combination of strong base anion resins and active carbon were significantly improved the quality of liquid sugar by reducing of colour, turbidity, ash content and finally increasing the purity of liquid sugar produced. The ICUMSA colour was reduced by 97,46 % using IRA 400 and it was better than using of IRA 900 with colour removal was 90,96 %. Further more by using active carbon between 40 - 100 grams per litre liquid sugar could reduce ICUMSA colour average between 94,42 - 95,73 %. Turbidity removal were between 78,82 to 100 %. The treatment using IRA 900 could remove 2,22 point of ash % brix and it was better than using IRA 400. The ash removal and the increase of sugar purity by treatments using addition of active carbon between 80-100 grams per litre liquid sugar were not significantly different. The ash removal was average 2,18 point of ash %brix and the increase of sugar purity was average 8,28 point of TSAI %brix. Active carbon treatments has only an effect on increasing of TSAI %brix. The choice for the best treatment for decolorization of liquid sugar resulted from purification of molasses using ion exclusion chromatography depends on the requirement of quality from liquid sugar that will be produced.

Key words : Active carbon, Resin, Color, Liquid sugar

Jurnal Ilmu Dasar Volume 7 No.2 Juli 2006 : 86-93

Thursday, May 15, 2008


Yahya Kurniawan dan Simping Yuliatun

Indonesian Sugar Research Institute
Jalan Pahlawan Nomor 25
Pasuruan 67126

E-mail :


The exhaustion of fossil oil resources in Indonesia and the increasing price of petroleum oil in the world about 60 dollars per barrel make the alternative energy important. There are some alternative energy such as hydrothermal, cool, solar, natural gas, hydro, wind and green energy. Among those alternatives, green energy as a renewable energy the promising energy for transportation. Gasohol as a renewable energy is the most competitive alternative energy for transportation. ethanol is one of the more feasible for transportation. Gasohol is a mixture of 10 to 25 percent ethanol with gasoline can be used in any gasoline engine without modification. Ethanol has good oxygenating properties, improving gasoline combustion and reducing emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter and other pollutants. Ethanol is made by fermentation process, distillation and dehydration. The raw materials are from sugar materials such as sugarcane, molasses, sweet sorghum and starch materials such as corn, cassava etc. Sugarcane produces 6000 liters- 9000 liters ethanol per hectare. Corn produces 2400 liters ethanol per hectare and cassava produces 2600 liters ethanol per hectare. In Indonesia, the growth consumption of the gasoline is relatively high, the gasoline consumption is estimated around 23 billion liters in 2010. If ten percents of the gasoline demand are substituted by ethanol, it will open the market about 2.3 billion liters ethanol. The use of gasohol as green energy for transportation has beneficial impact to the growth of national agro industry and increasing the income of farmers, reducing dependency on fossil fuels, lowering pollutant emission and the green house effect.

Key words: gasohol, ethanol, bio energy, bio fuel

Thursday, May 8, 2008


By Electo Eduardo Silva Lora, Marcelo Zampieri, Osvaldo José Venturini, Jose Joaquim Santos

(Excellence Group in Thermal Power and Distributed Generation, Federal University of Itajubá).


This paper shows the advantages of using thermodynamic and economic concepts, the so called “thermo-economics”, to carry out the assessment of repowering alternatives in sugar and alcohol mills’ cogeneration plants, which allows the determination of the cost of each product separately. The present scheme of an existing sugar and alcohol mill (1000 tonnes of crushed cane per hour) and four repowering alternatives are modelled using the Gate-Cycle Enter software. Different steam parameters (63 bars/480oC and 82 bars/520oC) are considered. The cogeneration plant thermal efficiency is calculated according to four different criteria and conclusions are made according to the way each of these criteria considers real processes. Exergetic and monetary cost for steam, mechanical power and electricity are presented for all the evaluated scenarios.

KEYWORDS: cogeneration, sugar and alcohol industry, thermoeconomics.

(ISSCT XXVIth CONGRESS Durban, South Africa 29th July - 2nd August 2007)

Sunday, May 4, 2008

Ethanol production by Kluyveromyces lactis immobilized cells in copolymer carriers produced by radiation polymerization;

El-Batal AI et al.;


The conditions for batch and continuous production of ethanol, using immobilized growing yeast cells of Kluyveromyces lactis, have been optimized . Yeast cells have been immobilized in hydrogel copolymer carriers composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with various hydrophilic monomers, using radiation copolymerization technique . Yeast cells were immobilized through adhesion and multiplication of yeast cells themselves . The ethanol production of immobilized growing yeast cells with these hydrogel carriers was related to the monomer composition of the copolymers and the optimum monomer composition was hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) . In this case by using batch fermentation, the superior ethanol production was 32.9 g L(-1) which was about 4 times higher than that of cells in free system . The relation between the activity of immobilized yeast cells and the water content of the copolymer carriers was also discussed . Immobilized growing yeast cells in PVA: HEMA (7%: 10%, w/w) hydrogel copolymer carrier, were used in a packed-bed column reactor for the continuous production of ethanol from lactose at different levels of concentrations (50, 100 and 150) g L(-1) . For all lactose feed concentrations, an increase in dilution rates from 0.1 h(-1) to 0.3 h(-1) lowered ethanol concentration in fermented broth, but the volumetric ethanol productivity and volumetric lactose uptake rate were improved . The fermentation efficiency was lowered with the increase in dilution rate and also at higher lactose concentration in feed medium and a maximum of 70.2% was obtained at the lowest lactose concentration 50 g L(-1).

(Acta Microbiol Pol, 2000, 49(2), 157 – 66)

Thursday, April 24, 2008

The Optimization of Fructosyltransferase Production
by Aspergillus sp WNIC

Aris Toharisman, Triantarti dan Hendro Santoso M
Indonesian Sugar Research Institute


Fructo Oligo Saccharides (FOS) which are considered biological benefits, have been developed recently to be used as functional factors in health-food. FOS show low cariogenicity, nondigestibility, proliferation of bifidobacteria in human intestinal tract and dietary fiberlike action. FOS posses these unique health beneficial effects and can be found wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. FOS are natural bifidobacteria enhancers. These natural food ingredients can maintain microbial balance in intestinal tract and be called functional factors or nutraceauticals. Prospect of FOS can be applied on variety of foods as a sweetener in hard candy, dessert, topping and spread, soft cream, bread, drinks, dairy products, sweeten milk, feeds and pharmaceutical industry. Addition of FOS in food not only provides biological functionality but also improves the final products appearance and physical properties. The aim of this research was to produce FOS from sucrose by using fructocyltransferase (FT-ase) from Aspergillus sp. Research on the production of fructo-oligosaccharrides (FOS) was optimization of FTase production. Inoculum of selected Aspergillus was added into medium with various composition and incubation conditions. Enzyme solution was mixed with sucrose and incubated at various times, pHs, temperatures, and agitations. The best parameter condition was based on the highest FT-ase activity. The results showed that production of FT-ase was affected by Fermentation time, pH’s and incubation temperature. The carbon source tested permitted good growth and enzyme production where sucrose supported rather good enzyme production. It was obvious that enzyme production was not closely correlated with cell growth. The best Fructooligosaccharide yield (20,53%) was achieved when 20 g/100 ml sucrose was utilized. Yeast extract was good nitrogen source for enzym production. The best FT-ase activity was achieved when 1,2 g/100 ml yeast extract was utilized. Addition of mineral salt also enhanced enzyme production where 1 g/l Magnesium salt gave the best cell growth and enzyme production.
Keywords: sucrose, fructooligosaccharide, fructosyltransferase, alternative sweetener

Monday, April 21, 2008

Chromatographic Separation of Sugarcane Thick Juice
for High Fructose Syrup

Yahya Kurniawani dan Hendro Santoso M

Indonesian Sugar Research Institute
Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126


This paper reports a study of chromatographic separation process of glucose-fructose mixtures. The experiments was conducted in laboratory scale using a column filled with 1800 ml of resin as stationary phase and aquades as mibile phase or eluent. The chromatographic separation was to study the fractionation of sugarcane thick juice after a preparation step which included decolorization, demineralization and inversion. Experiment conditions included the use of two resins (different in size) in the form of Calcium in 1000 ml column, feed volume 300 ml, temperature 550 C and flow rate 10 ml per minute and fractionation time of 10 minutes. The first treatment used below 50 mesh resin and the second between 50-100 mesh. The composition of glucose and fructose was determined using polarimetric method. Other analyses were done for brix using hand refractometer and Ph using Ph meter. Results showed that the glucose-fructose component of the juice was not so high in the first treatment but the separation was quite well in the second treatment. The results of the second treatment showed that chromatographic separation for the treated thick cane juice could produce good separation in both 65,30% brix glucose and 34,66% brix fructose mixture and in a high fructose content mixture composed of 47,26% brix glucose and 57,66% brix fructose. Therefore, it is posible to produce two kinds of products without isomerization step as follows: the first product was HFS 55 which contain 55% fructose and the second product was HFS 42 which contain 42% fructose. The analysis of these products showed that the quality could meet SNI standard except the ash content.

Keywords : chromatograpy, thick cane juice, hihg fructose syrup.

(MAJALAH IPTEK Vol.16, No. 2, Mei 2005)

Sunday, April 20, 2008

Effect of Added Inoculum and Di-potasium hydrogen phosphate Concentration on the Fermentation of Dextran Production

Triantarti dan Hendro Santoso M

Indonesian Sugar Research Institute
Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126


Dextran production is conducted by fermentation by using Leuconostoc mesenteriodes which produces dextransucrase enzyme. Sucrose is converted to dextran by dextransucrase. Sucrose is a main carbon source in dextran fermentation. Hence, sugar cane juice mainly contains sucrose is potential material for dextran fermentation. The effect of inoculum concentration added at the beginning of fermentation of di-potasium hydrogen phosphate concentration in the medium were studied. L. Mesenteriodes B-512F was used. The results showed that there were no effect on optimum growth and dextran production when the inoculum concentration added at 1% and 5% (v/v). The only difference was inoculum at 1% (v/v) delaying the growth and dextran formation in comparison to the addition of 5% (v/v) inoculum. The optimum growth and dextran production were affected by di-potasium hydrogen phosphate concentration in the medium (0,5 ; 1,0 and 1,5% w/v). The growth was highest at di-potasium hydrogen phosphate concentration 1,5% w/v. On the otherhand, dextran production was lower compared to the other treatments.

Keywords: dextran,fermentation,inoculum, di-potasium hydrogen phosphate.

Saturday, April 19, 2008

Isolation of Aspergillus niger For Producing Fructosyltransferase Enzyme

Hendro Santoso M ; Triantarti dan Aris Toharisman

(Indonesian Sugar Research Institute
Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126)


The use of sucrose as a raw material for fructooligosaccharides (FOS) production is one of sugar industry diversification programs. FOS, new alternative sweeteners, possess a number of desirable characteristic such as low calories, no cariogenicity, safety for diabetics, and bifidus-stimulating functionality. FOS was produced from sucrose by using fructocyltransferase (FTase) from Aspergillus sp. The aim of this research was to isolate and screen of molds for producing Fructosyltransferase enzyme. Microbes producing FTase were isolated and screened from filter cake, bagasse, cane juice, and soil samples. Results showed that some isolates were regarded as prospective FTase producers such as Wonolangan 1C, Watutulis 3B, Wonolangan 1B, Watutulis 1C and Pesantren. The best FT-ase activity was produced by Wonolangan 1C isolate with the activity of 667 unit per ml (U/ml), followed by Watutulis 3B, Wonolangan 1B, Watutulis 1C and Pesantren with the activity of enzyme was 586 U/ml, 577 U/ml, 461 U/ml, and 451 U/ml, respectively. The best FOS concentration was produced by Wonolangan 1C strain with 16,91% yield.

Key words: isolation, FTase enzyme,Fructooligosacharide, alternative sweetener.

Wednesday, April 2, 2008

Effect of Atrazine Herbicide toward Population of Bacteria and Fungi in some Sugarcane Soil types
D. Sasongko

Indonesian Sugar Research Institute
E-mail :


The effect of atrazine herbicide on population of bacteria and fungi in rizosphere soil was studied in glass house with sugarcane susceptible and tolerant varieties and in the laboratory with petridish containing some 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 ppm of atrazine. These studied was done at Indonesian Sugar Research Institute in some soil types (Vertizol, Entizol and Ultizol). The result showed that population of bacteria in sugarcane rizosphere was increase at 30 days after planting (dap) and the population still increase until 60 dap in Vertizol, Entizol and Ultizol soil. Only population of fungi was increase in Entizol soil at 30 dap and at 60 dap the population was decrease in all soil types. Application of atrazine dose 6.0 kg/ha at 30 days after spraying (das) was affect on decreases population of bacteria more than 80% toward population at 15 das in sugarcane rizosphere of susceptible variety but not affect in sugarcane rizosphere of tolerant variety. At 30 das, population of fungi in sugarcane rizosphere (susceptible and tolerant varieties) was decrease more than 50% toward population at 15 das in three soil types. Laboratory studied showed that 5 ppm of atrazine (equal dose 7,5 kg/ha) or more, population of bacteria and fungi in Vertizol, Entizol and Ultizol soils was affected.
Key words : atrazine, sugarcane rizosphere, bacteria, fungi.
(Indonesian Sugar Research Journal Vol.42,No.1-2, Maret-Juni 2006)

Effect of Substituting Pure Sucrose by Sugarcane Juice
as Carbon Source on the Fermentation of Dextran Production

Triantarti dan Hendro Santoso M

Indonesian Sugar Research Institute
Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126


Sucrose is a carbon source for dextran fermentation and it is also used as a substrate of dextransucrase enzyme for producing dextran. Sugar cane juice containing sucrose as a main sugar, hence it is potential to be used as a cheap medium for dextran fermentation. This research was conducted to study the dextran fermentation using sugar cane juice as a medium.
Two main experiments were done in this research. The first experiment was determining the optimum medium composition for dextran fermentation using pure sucrose as a carbon source by variations on type and concentrations of yeast extract and buffering minerals. The second experiment was conducted to determine the effect of substituting pure sucrose in the fermentation medium by sugar cane juice. Fermentation was conducted at static condition, room temperature and 16-20 h fermentation time. The results showed that the optimum conditions for dextran fermentation using pure sucrose were sucrose 20%, yeast extract 0,75% (technical grade yeast extract was able to be used) and K2HPO4 or Na2HPO4 1% as minerals for buffering medium. Dextran production was able to reach 51 mg/g medium. The optimum medium composition and fermentation conditions were used as a control medium. In the second experiment, pure sucrose in the control medium was substituted by sugar cane juice with variations of 0; 50, 75 and 100%. Technical grade yeast extract was still added at 0,75%. The result showed that the higher sugar cane juice concentration the lower dextran production in the fermentation. On the other hand, medium fermentation containing 100% sugar cane juice without yeast extract was able to produce 45 mg dextran/g medium, which was not significantly different to dextran production from control medium. This experiment showed that sugar cane juice was a potential material as a cheap carbon source for dextran fermentation..

Key words : Dextran, sugar cane juice, carbon source.

(Jurnal ILMU DASAR, Vol.8No.2, Juli 2007 : 193-198.

Sunday, March 30, 2008


Yahya Kurniawan dan Hendro Santoso M

Indonesian Sugar Research Institute
Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126


Vinasse or ethanol slop is blackish brown liquid, which is not friendly to the environment. Therefore, it is necessary the possibility to reduce the color biologically. The study was started by isolating molds from the vinasse of Jatiroto Alcohol factory and the isolated molds was tested to study the capability of their color reduction. The results showed that there were 4 kinds of molds in the vinasse i.e. : Rhizopus sp., Penicillium A, Penicillium B, and Aspergillus. Amongst these molds, Penicillium A and Penicillium B had the best potency in reducing the slop color. Around 54 % of its absorbency value at 420 nm could be reduced by the molds.

Key words : Molds, isolation, color, vinasse.


Hendro Santoso M dan Aris Toharisman

Indonesian Sugar Research Institute
Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126)


Ethyl alcohol ( ethanol or alcohol ) can be produced from fermentation process using yeast as a microorganism and cane molasses as a substrate. Cane molasses, which contains 60-70 % total sugars, minerals and vitamins is good raw material for ethanol fermentation. Ethanol fermentation fenomenomn as a process in which chemical changes are brought about in an organic substrate such as cane molasses, throught the action of biochemical catalysts, called enzymes, elaborated by yeast as types of microrganism. The strain commonly used in ethanol fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Process conditions and type of strains are very important factors in the performance of ethanol fermentation. This paper describes as review on the fermentation of ethanol using cane molasses as substrate in relationship to aspect of a raw materials, process technology, microorganism and quality of ethanol products.

Key words : Fermentation, ethanol, cane molasses