Friday, August 28, 2009

Evaluation of the feed value of ensiled and non-ensiled mixtures of sugarcane tops, molasses and bagasse


Ma. Lourdes I. Dormido, Lucia C. Sanchez and Ma. Lourdes T. Escarrilla

Sugarcane by-products such as cane tops, molasses and bagasse were ensiled with urea and sodium hydroxide for sixty days and changes in proximate analysis and Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN), indicative of the relative energy value of a food to an animal, were evaluated for each treatment.

Differences in crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, per cent ash and TDN were highly significant among the treatments after ensilage. The statistically highest TDN of 75.36 after ensilage was observed on T5 (0 cane tops, 85% bagasse, 15% molasses + urea) and this was statistically comparable to T1 (0 cane tops, 85% bagasse and 15% molasses) and T6 (42.5% cane tops, 42.5% bagasse, 15% molasses + urea) with TDN values of 74.68 and 72.05 respectively.

Urea significantly increased the crude protein after ensilage while sodium hydroxide increased the ash content before and after ensilage.

The TDN values of the different mixtures before and after ensilage showed little differences, which proved that the process of ensilage was able to conserve and stabilize the nutrient values of mixtures of cane tops, molasses and bagasse both in he presence and absence of chemical additives such urea and sodium hydroxide.


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Sunday, August 23, 2009

COD and BOD removal from Ion Exchange Resin Wastewater By Using Sodium and Calcium hypochlorite

Yahya Kurniawan dan Hendro Santoso M

Pusat Penelitian Perkebunan Gula Indonesia

Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126


Teknologi Resin Penukar Ion (RPI) adalah teknologi dekolorisasi yang banyak digunakan dalam proses pengolahan gula rafinasi. Teknologi RPI dinilai sangat ekonomis karena biaya yang diperlukan untuk proses dekolorisasi lebih murah dari biaya dengan teknologi karbon aktif dan bone char. Namun teknologi ini menghasilkan limbah cair yang sulit diolah dengan kandungan garam, zat warna organik yang berwarna kehitaman dan kadar COD yang tinggi serta berpotensi mencemari lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menurunkan kadar COD dan warna dalam limbah cair resin dengan perlakuan kimia. Bahan kimia yang digunakan adalah Natrium hipoklorit dan Calcium hipoklorit. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa untuk pengolahan limbah cair resin tanpa pengenceran perlakuan kombinasi 5 ml Na hipoklorit 10% dan 0,05 ml Hidrogen peroksida 10% mampu menurunkan COD sebesar 66,18% sedangkan kombinasi 2,5 mL Na hipoklorit 10%, 1 mL Calcium hidroksida (1:1) dan 2 mL PAC 10% mampu menurunkan COD sebesar 71,56%। Perlakuan dengan kombinasi 5 mL Ca hipoklorit 1 % dan 2 mL PAC 10% pada limbah cair resin merupakan perlakuan yang dapat menurunkan COD tertinggi dibandingkan 5 perlakuan lainnya yaitu 77,42%.

Kata kunci : Limbah cair resin, COD, Natrium hipoklorit, Kalsium hipoklorit।

Ion Exchange Resin (IER) technology is decolorisation technology which has been used widely in the refine sugar process. The IER technology is known very efficient because the decolorisation cost is much cheaper in comparison to that of active carbon and bone char process. However the technology produces waste water that hard to be treated with high salt content, blackish color high COD content and very potential to causes environmental pollution problem. The objective of the experiments is to reduce the COD content and the color of IER waste water by using chemical treatment. The chemical used were Sodium hypochlorite and Calcium hypochlorite. The results of the treatment for the original waste water showed that the treatment of 5 mL Na hypochlorite 10% and 0,05 mL Hydrogen peroxide 10% could reduce COD 66,18%। While the treatment of 2,5 mL Na hypochlorite 10%, 1 mL Calcium hydroxide and 2 mL PAC could reduce COD 71,56%. For the dilute waste water with two times dilution showed that the treatment of 5 ml Ca hypochlorite 1% and 2 mL PAC 10% was the highest COD reduction among the treatment i.e 77,42%.

Key words : IER waste water, COD, Sodium hypochlorite, Calcium hypochlorite