Monday, July 28, 2008


Utilization of Fungi for Biotreatment of Raw Wastewaters

1Laboratoire d’Environnement et de Biologie Aquatique (LEBA), UFR-Sciences et Gestion de I’environnement, Universite d’Abobo-Adjame, 02 BP 801 Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire
2Unit of Bioengineering, Catholic University of Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2 Bte 19, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium


Fungal biomasses are capable of treating metal-contaminated effluents with efficiencies several orders of magnitude superior to activated carbon (F-400) or the industrial resin Dowex-50. additionally, fungal biomasses are susceptible to engineering improvements and regeneration of their capabilities. With regard to organic pollutants, excessive nutrients and dyes, fungi can remove them from wastewaters, leading to decrease in their toxicities. However, the detoxification rates seem to be dependent on media and culture conditions. The postreatment by anaerobic bioprocesses of effluents that have been pretreated with fungi can lead to higher biogas than the original effluents. In addition to the degradation of organic pollutants, fungi produce added-value products such as enzymes (Lip, MnP, Lacc, amylase, etc.) and single-cell protein (SCP). Most research on fungal capacities to purify polluted effluents has been performed on a laboratory scale, hence there is a need to extend such research to pilot scale and to apply it to industrial processes.

Key words: wastewaters, effluents, fungi, biodegradation, biosorption, decolourisation, value-added treatment.

African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (12), pp. 620-630, December 2003
Available online at
ISSN 1684-5315 ©2004 Academic Journals

Thursday, July 24, 2008


Triantarti and Aris Toharisman
Indonesian Sugar Research Institute


Commonly, decolorization of cane sugar syrup is conducted by single anionic resin regenerated using NaCl solution. However, decolorization using the common technique is unable to be used for producing a direct consumption of cane syrup. The reason is the syrup produced will have a salty taste resulted from high concentration of Cl- ions released from anionic resin during decolorization process. The objective of this research project was to determine the ability of weak anionic resin compared to strong anionic resin after regeneration using disodium hydrogen phosphate for decolorization of cane syrup (60%Brix) with an average color of 700 iu. The cane syrup as a feed was produced through purification of raw cane juice by a combination of carbonatation and phosphatation process followed by decolorization using powder activated carbon. The results showed that the amount of Na2HPO4 used for anionic resin regeneration having a significant effect on the degree of decolorization. The optimum condition for anionic resin regeneration was using 2 BV (bed volume) NaOH 5% followed by 8 BV Na2HPO4 1%. Degree of decolorization using strong anionic resin was slightly lower compared to weak anionic resin. They were 42.4% and 47.5% respectively for capacity of 40 BV of cane syrup per cycle.

Key words: cane syrup, decolorization, weak anionic resin, strong anionic resin, disodium hydrogen phosphate,

Thursday, July 17, 2008

Microbial Protein Enrichment of Sugarcane by-Products


Ma. Lourdes I. Dormido, Ma. Lucia C. Sanchez, Corazon H Pahilanga and Ma. Lourdes T. Escarrilla

Sugarcane farm wastes such as cane tops and trash are know to be good fodder for ruminants, however, they are not used to a great extent. Filter mud, a waste product of the sugar factory, is a plant nutrient source in its decomposed form. However, tons of filter mud are left in sugar mill yards. These waste products are potential sources of animal feed and organic fertilizer.
The effect of chemical and /or microbiological treatment of sugarcane farm wastes bagasse and filter mud has been studied at the Sugar Regulatory Administration.
Trichoderm a harzianum, a strain belonging to the cellulolytic fungus decomposers, was used to inoculate several substrate/treatments of sugarcane waste products. Each substrate consisted of different combinations of farm and factory wastes. The effect of microbial inoculation on the nitrogen content of the substrates was observed at measured time intervals. The microorganism was found to enrich the protein contents of the different substrates by 129% to 461% after the third day to the 34th day.
Six strains of Trichoderma inoculated on bagasse with and without ipil-ipil were evaluated and compared for their nitrogen enriching capacity. One day after inoculation, all six strains of Trichoderma namely: T. harzianum, T. lignorum, T. koningi, T. viride, T. pseudokoningi and T. resie were able to increase the % protein of bagasse with or without ipil0ipil by 163% - 1,143%. Trichoderma pseudokoningi obtained the highest % protein at 2 and 7 days after inoculation. Thirty days after inoculation, three strains namely: T. harzianum, T. viride and T. pseudokoningi were able to enrich the protein content of bagasse with and without ipil-ipil. T. lignorum increased the protein content of bagasse only in the presence of ipil-ipil.

North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1100
Tel. Nos# (632)928-7990; (632)928-0666

Friday, July 11, 2008


Teresita O. Macuro, Ma. Lucia C. Sanchez, Dida V. Gatanela, and Ma. Lourdes T. Escarrilla


Colorants of molasses are due to flavones, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. They are phytonutrients which are responsible for giving plants (sugarcane) their odor, color and flavor. They also contribute to the plant’s natural defense system, protecting it from pests, viruses, bacteria and excessive sunlight. They could also prevent certain diseases in humans including cancer and heart disease. Phytonutrients are antioxidants which prevent or neutralize free radicals that damage the vital functions of cell structures with increase in age and cause a tremendous drain on the immune system.
Fermentation of molasses media was made for a period of one year. Sucrose and reducing sugar levels were monitored for alcohol and phenolics production. Sucrose was reduced to glucose and fructose and was further converted to alcohols and phenolic compounds. Alcohols were highly produced in high concentration molasses media for a longer period of fermentation while in low concentration molasses media, the amount of alcohols produced decreased. Phenolic compounds were initially present in molasses and they were continuously produced during the fermentation process. Phenolics could be removed completely from fermented media using sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate in the early fermentation period. The higher the concentration of molasses media, the higher the phenolic contents. The antioxidants formed in the fermented broth highly enhanced the shelf-life of molasses media by preventing molds and other microorganisms to grow.

North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1100
Tel. Nos# (632)928-7990; (632)928-0666

Wednesday, July 2, 2008



1. Dedini S/A Indústrias de Base; Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
2. Usina Barralcool, Barra do Bugres, MT, Brazil



Brazil started a National Biodiesel Program 30 years after having launched PROÁLCOOL – National Alcohol Program. By examining biodiesel and bioethanol, significant synergies can be seen in the production of these two biofuels and, for this reason, Dedini introduced the concept of “Bioethanol-Biodiesel Integration” into the market in November 2004. The biodiesel installation is attached to and integrated into the sugar and alcohol mill, with a number of advantages, bringing cost reductions and minimized investments.
In the agricultural sector, the concept of producing oil grains during cane renovation already exists, from which vegetable oil is extracted, i.e. the main feedstock for biodiesel. The second feedstock is bioethanol produced at the mill, and the integration enables optimization by using existing installations, utilities and human resources. The energy is produced from sugarcane bagasse. A portion of the biodiesel produced fuels trucks, tractors and harvesters of the mill. Summarizing, there is synergy in the cane crop and in the industry, as well as benefits in economics, energy and the production process. Considering such attractiveness, Barralcool Mill, in Brazil has built a biodiesel plant integrated into the mill, supplied by Dedini, which started operations in November 2006, with the following highlights:
• First in the world integrated with a sugar and alcohol mill;
• Flexible to use multiple feed stocks: vegetable oils and animal fat (beef tallow);
• World first continuous plant using ethyl route; and flexible to methyl route;
• 50 000 tonnes/year capacity.
Barralcool Mill then becomes the first in the world producing 3 BIOs: bioethanol, biodiesel, and bioelectricity (surplus electricity produced from bagasse sold to the grid). This paper presents the Barralcool Mill case: biodiesel production using ethyl route, integration to the mill, and the derived benefits.

KEYWORDS: biodiesel, biodiesel integration in a mill, ethyl route, biodiesel and bioethanol.

ISSCT XXVIth CONGRESS Durban, South Africa 29th July - 2nd August 2007)