Sunday, November 30, 2008

Estimation of Alanine and Glycine in Cane Juice Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Aamarpali Ratna Puri,

National Public School (resi), Kapurthala, Punjab, India and Dr Gauri's (pharmacy) Kanpur


The ICUMSA or AOAC (Association of Official Agricultural Chemists) traditional test methods for testing individual constituents, pol and brix, are time consuming, operator dependent and involve the use of hazardous chemicals. The increased awareness of environmental and health topics makes it desirable to avoid the clarification of cane juice with basic lead acetate. Widely used in the food and agricultural industries, Near Infrared Spectroscopy NIR has now made considerable inroads into the more lengthy and wet chemistry procedures. Near Infrared is the region of combination bands and overtones due to interatomic forces. Hydrogenic atoms being the lightest vibrate within the near infrared region due to N-H, O-H and C-H groups. These are common atoms present within most food products. As near infrared wavelengths are specific, individual components can be identified so it can be used for quantitative analysis of phosphates, silicates and amino acids in cane juice. Amino acids are important as they, along with other nitrogenous bodies, react with reducing sugars to form colored compounds. Analyzing amino acids in a sample can help solve color problem in sugar. Alanine and glycine are commonly found amino acids in sugarcane. In the present research the online estimation of alanine and glycine is done in cane juice using Near-Infrared spectroscopy. Near Infrared Spectrophotometer of Elico (India) range (600-2500nm) has been used in its transmittance mode in conjunction with two multivariate calibration procedures, i.e., Partial Least Square Regression analysis (PLSR) and Stepwise Multivariate Linear Regression analysis (SMLR) for the analysis of alanine and glycine in cane juice. Multi linear regression analysis was also carried out to find out the most correlating wavelengths along with the standard deviation.

Submitted: September 12, 2006 · Accepted: January 29, 2007 · Published: March 26, 2007

Recommended Citation
Puri, Aamarpali Ratna (2007) "Estimation of Alanine and Glycine in Cane Juice Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy," International Journal of Food Engineering: Vol. 3 : Iss. 1, Article 2.
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Monday, November 17, 2008


a Laboratory of Optimization, Design and Advanced Control, School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, Brazil
b Interdisciplinary Center for Energy Planning, State University of Campinas, Brazil


Fermentation done at 34ºC (sometimes at higher temperatures) limits the ethanol content of the final wine, increases energy consumption during the distillation step, increases stillage volume, promotes infection, flocculation and yeast inhibition, so the advantages of operating fermentation at temperatures of 28ºC (at least 32ºC) are evident.
A review on factors such as: wet and dry bulb temperature daily and monthly profiles, design of cooling towers and heat exchangers, the use of more efficient cooling tower internals, steam jet water cooling production system, and the use of cooled water accumulators were done. Kinetics of heat evolution during ethanol production was analysed, and a model considering these factors was developed.
This model helps to design the cooling system in order to attain the desired fermentation temperature, larger ethanol content on final wine and less stillage volume per volume of ethanol produced.
Three options are explored in this work, considering the use of a cooling tower to provide cooled water during the coolest hours of the day and the use of secondary equipment to provide cooled water during the warmest hours of the day. The equipment considered were a water accumulator, a steam jet ejector and an absorption machine.
In the case of a water accumulator, the cooling tower size would be greater, but for both steam jet and absorption machine, there would be an increase in consumption of utilities.
All options would cause an increase in initial cost, and an economic analysis is to be made in part 2 of this work in order to help in making a final decision.

KEYWORDS: Bio-ethanol, fermentation cooling, energy consumption
ISSCT XXVIth CONGRESS Durban, South Africa 29th July - 2nd August 2007)

Monday, November 10, 2008


By D.F Day, G. Dequeiroz, C-H. Chung and M. Kim
Audubon Sugar Institute, LSU Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, La., USA


A biorefinery will have to produce a range of products, including ethanol, for economic viability. Any process for manufacturing ethanol from bagasse will also yield lignin fragments which contain aromatic compounds, and some cellobiose due to incomplete cellulose conversion. The pretreatment and hydrolysis methods dictate the actual compositions of these streams. An ethanol, organo-solv process, a singlet oxygen pretreatment and an ammonia explosion process were tested, not only for their ability to increase sugar availability for fermentation, but also for the “by-products” produced.
A range of monophenolic compounds derived from the lignin were detected, ranging from 30 mg to 100 mg of vanillin equivalent per gram of dry bagasse. The mono phenols produced by the various treatments were characterized using GC/MS. The compound with commercial value that turned up in all treatments was vanillin.
Typically, enzyme hydrolysis of ligno-cellulose produces primarily glucose and a small amount of cellobiose. Cellobiose in its own right is a potentially valuable product as a non-nutritive sugar. Co-production of a b-glucosidase inhibitor, gluconic acid, during enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose altered the amounts of glucose and cellobiose produced. Addition of a b-glucosidase inhibitor, gluconolactone or gluconic acid, significantly increased the amount of cellobiose with a corresponding decrease in amount of glucose produced. In situ production of cellobiose during enzymatic conversion, using the enzyme glucose oxidase, yielded the same effect. With a suitable concentration of glucose oxidase it was possible to convert over 19.3% of the cellulose to cellobiose.

KEYWORDS: biorefinery, by-products; mono-phenols, lignin

ISSCT XXVIth CONGRESS Durban, South Africa 29th July - 2nd August 2007)

Saturday, November 1, 2008


Untung Murdiyatmo
(Indonesian Sugar Research Institute)

Samples of soils and composts have been used as sources of microbes for isolating dextranase producing bacteria. By using a selective medium and enrichment technique, six gram positive isolates capable of producing extracellular dextranase have been found. Partial identification of these isolates show that one of them belongs to Micrococcus sp (isolate B1), and the rest belong to Streptococcus spp..(isolates B2, B3, B4 and B6). Dextranase productivity of the isolates was 182,3 ; 244,5 ; 20,5 ; 72,3 ; 13,9 and 15,7 unit/ml respectively.

Key words : Bacterial dextranase, Micrococcus, Streptococcus.

(Indonesian Sugar Research Journal Vol.XXXII (3-4) September - Desember 1996 :1 - 7)