Friday, August 28, 2009

Evaluation of the feed value of ensiled and non-ensiled mixtures of sugarcane tops, molasses and bagasse


Ma. Lourdes I. Dormido, Lucia C. Sanchez and Ma. Lourdes T. Escarrilla

Sugarcane by-products such as cane tops, molasses and bagasse were ensiled with urea and sodium hydroxide for sixty days and changes in proximate analysis and Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN), indicative of the relative energy value of a food to an animal, were evaluated for each treatment.

Differences in crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, per cent ash and TDN were highly significant among the treatments after ensilage. The statistically highest TDN of 75.36 after ensilage was observed on T5 (0 cane tops, 85% bagasse, 15% molasses + urea) and this was statistically comparable to T1 (0 cane tops, 85% bagasse and 15% molasses) and T6 (42.5% cane tops, 42.5% bagasse, 15% molasses + urea) with TDN values of 74.68 and 72.05 respectively.

Urea significantly increased the crude protein after ensilage while sodium hydroxide increased the ash content before and after ensilage.

The TDN values of the different mixtures before and after ensilage showed little differences, which proved that the process of ensilage was able to conserve and stabilize the nutrient values of mixtures of cane tops, molasses and bagasse both in he presence and absence of chemical additives such urea and sodium hydroxide.


North Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 1100

Tel. Nos# (632)928-7990; (632)928-0666

Sunday, August 23, 2009

COD and BOD removal from Ion Exchange Resin Wastewater By Using Sodium and Calcium hypochlorite

Yahya Kurniawan dan Hendro Santoso M

Pusat Penelitian Perkebunan Gula Indonesia

Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126


Teknologi Resin Penukar Ion (RPI) adalah teknologi dekolorisasi yang banyak digunakan dalam proses pengolahan gula rafinasi. Teknologi RPI dinilai sangat ekonomis karena biaya yang diperlukan untuk proses dekolorisasi lebih murah dari biaya dengan teknologi karbon aktif dan bone char. Namun teknologi ini menghasilkan limbah cair yang sulit diolah dengan kandungan garam, zat warna organik yang berwarna kehitaman dan kadar COD yang tinggi serta berpotensi mencemari lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menurunkan kadar COD dan warna dalam limbah cair resin dengan perlakuan kimia. Bahan kimia yang digunakan adalah Natrium hipoklorit dan Calcium hipoklorit. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa untuk pengolahan limbah cair resin tanpa pengenceran perlakuan kombinasi 5 ml Na hipoklorit 10% dan 0,05 ml Hidrogen peroksida 10% mampu menurunkan COD sebesar 66,18% sedangkan kombinasi 2,5 mL Na hipoklorit 10%, 1 mL Calcium hidroksida (1:1) dan 2 mL PAC 10% mampu menurunkan COD sebesar 71,56%। Perlakuan dengan kombinasi 5 mL Ca hipoklorit 1 % dan 2 mL PAC 10% pada limbah cair resin merupakan perlakuan yang dapat menurunkan COD tertinggi dibandingkan 5 perlakuan lainnya yaitu 77,42%.

Kata kunci : Limbah cair resin, COD, Natrium hipoklorit, Kalsium hipoklorit।

Ion Exchange Resin (IER) technology is decolorisation technology which has been used widely in the refine sugar process. The IER technology is known very efficient because the decolorisation cost is much cheaper in comparison to that of active carbon and bone char process. However the technology produces waste water that hard to be treated with high salt content, blackish color high COD content and very potential to causes environmental pollution problem. The objective of the experiments is to reduce the COD content and the color of IER waste water by using chemical treatment. The chemical used were Sodium hypochlorite and Calcium hypochlorite. The results of the treatment for the original waste water showed that the treatment of 5 mL Na hypochlorite 10% and 0,05 mL Hydrogen peroxide 10% could reduce COD 66,18%। While the treatment of 2,5 mL Na hypochlorite 10%, 1 mL Calcium hydroxide and 2 mL PAC could reduce COD 71,56%. For the dilute waste water with two times dilution showed that the treatment of 5 ml Ca hypochlorite 1% and 2 mL PAC 10% was the highest COD reduction among the treatment i.e 77,42%.

Key words : IER waste water, COD, Sodium hypochlorite, Calcium hypochlorite

Saturday, July 25, 2009



Embrapa Satellite Monitoring, Brazil1

Instituto Politecnico de Hanava, Cuba2

USP Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos, NETF, Brazil3


This article introduces a proposal concerning a new social and ecological agro-industry structure. This framework was planned to produce energy and food in a sustainable way, it is called GERIPA Project. It was developed with the purpose of integrating production of alcohol, food and electricity, with a working period of twelve months; eight with sugar cane and four with sorghum. The transport of materials runs on engines with vaporized alcohol. It considers thermodynamics optimization, with social and environmental quality, based on the Kyoto Protocol and the premises of Sustained Development. It occupies 4310 ha, integrating the whole productive process like a live organism. With 40.000 liters of alcohol produced daily, as well as 5.2 MW of electricity, 4760 tons per year of food. Once under economically stable operation, it can generate up to 5600 permanent jobs. With these characteristics, the project could provide the basic needs of a city of 17300 inhabitants, becoming a strategic setting for autonomous regional development.

In Ortega, E. & Ulgiati, S. (editors): Proceedings of IV Biennial International Workshop “Advances in Energy Studies”. Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brazil. June 16-19, 2004. Pages 323-328

Wednesday, June 10, 2009

Utilization of Fungi for Biotreatment of Raw Wastewaters

1Laboratoire d’Environnement et de Biologie Aquatique (LEBA), UFR-Sciences et Gestion de I’environnement, Universite d’Abobo-Adjame, 02 BP 801 Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire
2Unit of Bioengineering, Catholic University of Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2 Bte 19, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium


Fungal biomasses are capable of treating metal-contaminated effluents with efficiencies several orders of magnitude superior to activated carbon (F-400) or the industrial resin Dowex-50. additionally, fungal biomasses are susceptible to engineering improvements and regeneration of their capabilities. With regard to organic pollutants, excessive nutrients and dyes, fungi can remove them from wastewaters, leading to decrease in their toxicities. However, the detoxification rates seem to be dependent on media and culture conditions. The postreatment by anaerobic bioprocesses of effluents that have been pretreated with fungi can lead to higher biogas than the original effluents. In addition to the degradation of organic pollutants, fungi produce added-value products such as enzymes (Lip, MnP, Lacc, amylase, etc.) and single-cell protein (SCP). Most research on fungal capacities to purify polluted effluents has been performed on a laboratory scale, hence there is a need to extend such research to pilot scale and to apply it to industrial processes.

Key words: wastewaters, effluents, fungi, biodegradation, biosorption, decolourisation, value-added treatment.

African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (12), pp. 620-630, December 2003
Available online at
ISSN 1684-5315 ©2004 Academic Journals

Sunday, April 26, 2009

Isolation of Diazotrophic Endophyte Bacteria from Sugarcane and Bacterial Characterization using Phenotypic Approach

Wiwik E. Widayati

Pusat Penelitian Perkebunan Gula Indonesia, Jl. Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan


Isolation and characterization bacteria are the unity steps in microbiology methods. Those steps are usefull to simplify the bacteria diversity which were isolated in this research for further observations. The aim of this study was to isolate diazotrophic endophyte bacteria from sugarcane and to characterize bacteria obtained by using phenotypic properties. The diazotrophic endophyte bacteria were isolated by using selective isolation, while their diazotrophic properties were determined with nitrogenase activity (ARA). Similarities among bacteria were then figured out as a dendogram by using phenotypic and chemosystematic characters. The results showed that 12 isolates of bacteria endophyte were successfully isolated and 7 isolates of them were identified as diazotrophic bacteria. Congruence of the results was obtained from phenotypic characterization including morphology, biochemical characters and cellular protein profile. The data showed that 4 isolates (10.2.2; 10.2.3; and were strongly indicated from the same genus, because those isolates located at ≥ 96% of index similarity. These isolates were also indicated different from other isolates (10 K1, 10 K2 and NB12). Numerical systematic used in this research was useful for selecting the bacteria isolates that will be used for further steps of the research.

Key words : diazotrophic bacteria, endophyte, sugarcane, phenotyphic dan numerical systematic

Friday, April 10, 2009

Application of Na and Partial Substitution of K-Na in Differrent Varieties of Sugarcane Planted on Inceptisol Soil

Indonesian Sugar Research Institute


Senior researcher at Indonesian Sugar Res. Institute,
Jln. Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan, Indonesia.


Green house and field experiments have been conducted to evaluate the effects of Na and partial
substitution of K-Na on nutrient status of soil, growth and yield of sugarcane, juice quality, and sugar yield.
Three factors (varieties: PS 82-3605 and PS 78-2274-P4B; KCl dosages: 0, 40, 60, 80, 100% of standard
dosage; and NaCl dosages: 0, 20, 40, 60 % equivalent to standard KCl dosage) have been combined in a
randomized block design (green house experiment) and a split plot design (field experiment) with three
replications. In the green house experiment, a certain level of Na resulted in a positive effect on the sugar
yield. Dealing with NaCl dosage, the result showed that the highest sugar yield (229 g/pot) was reached by
the addition of 125 kg NaCl/ha. This beneficial effect of Na was due to the increase of sugarcane weight and
juice quality. There was an indication that Na was required by sugarcane and could inhibit the accumulation
of K in juice. Substitution of KCl (20-40 % of its dosage) by NaCl showed no negative effect on sugarcane
growth. The treatment of 60% KCl (240 kg/ha) + 40% NaCl (125 kg/ha) gave the highest sugar yield (243 g/
pot), while the yield of the standard K treatment (400 kg KCl/ha) was only 187 g/pot. Results from the field
experiment showed that partial substitution of K-Na did not influence the sugarcane weight, rendement, and
sugar yield. PS 82-3605 was superior than that of PS 78-2274-P4B and there is no difference in substitution
capacity of K-Na for both varieties.

Key Words: Potassium, sodium, sugarcane, substitution, varieties, soil properties

Thursday, April 2, 2009

The effect of ratooning and application of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers to total of soluble proteins in the leaves of M 442-51 and PS 60 cane varieties

Suyoto Hadisaputro
(Indonesian Sugar Research Institute Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126)


Ratooning system has been implemented in all cane fields, but the system can reduce productivity and growth performance of cane. One factor that affects the cane growth performance is enzyme activities, and its activities are in general can be indentified as total of soluble proteins. This experiment was done to study the effect of ratooning and application of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) fertilizers to the total of soluble proteins in the leaves of M 442-51 (cane variety with good ratooning ability) and PS 60 (cane variety with bad ratooning ability). The experiment was conducted at the Indonesian Sugar Research Institute (ISRI) Pasuruan, East Java. The results showed that the totals of soluble proteins in cane leaves were influenced by genetic and environmental factors. There was found that ratooning system reduced the total of soluble proteins, but it depended on the cane variety. The reduce of the total of soluble protein on M 442-51 was higher than that of PS 60. Meanwhile, it was found that by increasing the dosage of both N and K fertilizers, the total soluble proteins in cane leaves can increase, but there were different responses between two cane varieties observed. M 442-21 had a better response to N dosage application than PS 60, and conversely PS 60 had a better response to K dosage application than M 442-51. Moreover, it was also found that improvement of the total of soluble proteins as a result of increasing K fertilizer dosage application on sugarcane with N deficiency was higher than that of sugarcane with enough N. Similarly, improvement of the total of soluble proteins as a result of increasing N fertilizer dosage application on sugarcane with lack of K nutrient was better than that of sugarcane with enough K. Anyway, the rate of improvement of the total of soluble proteins caused by N and K fertilizers was not an addition model but it was a resultant model as the effect of each nutrient studied.
Key words: sugarcane, M 442-51, PS 60, ratooning ability, nitrogen, potassium, total of soluble proteins

Monday, March 23, 2009

Study of Fluazifop Buthyl and Glyphosate Potassium as ripeners on PS 951 cane variety

Suyoto Hadisaputro *), Pudjiarso dan Catur Okariana
(Indonesian Sugar Research Institute Jl.Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126)


Cane ripeners have been comercially used in Indonesian sugar industry. Recently, there are three new chemical products, such as: Fluazfop Buthyl 150 g/l product (FB-1), Fluazfop Buthyl 125 g/l product (FB-2) and Glyphosate Potassium 620 g/l product (GP), that potentially can be used to spur maturation of cane. In order to study a performance of the three chemicals as cane ripeners, at the Indonesian Sugar Research Institute (ISRI) Pasuruan was conducted efication research with use PS 951 as a cane variety tested. In this experiment was also studied Isoprophylamine Glyphosate (IG) as a standar recommended ripeners. The parameter observed were: (1) maturation factor (MF) and (2) components of juice qualities of cane, such as: brix, pol, purity, and sucrose content, (3) cane yield, (4) toxicity rate of cane to chemicals tested, and (5) growth performance of ratoon crop (RC). The results of the experiment showed that FB-1, FB-2 and GP were able to spur the maturation and increase juice quality of PS 951 cane variety tested, and it were similar with showed by IG on 0,80 l product/ha. All the chemicals tested, include IG, caused clorotic symptom on leaves and dead of growth point but it were not reduce the cane yield. Moreover, the poisoning symptoms on PC were not depressed the cane growth performance of RC. The significantly effect of the three chemicals tested as ripeners were found at 4-5 weeks after treatment (wat) and the effective dosage aplications were 0,60-0,90 l product/ha.

Key words: Cane ripeners, Fluazifop butyl 150 g/l product (FB-1), Fluazifop butyl 125 g/l product (FB-2), Glyphosate Potassium (GP), Isopro¬phyl¬amine glyphosate (IG), PS 951

Friday, March 6, 2009


Toto Martoyo* dan Agus Bachtiar*
*Pusat Penelitian Perkebunan Gula Indonesia

Cane juice purification at sugar factory (SF) is the important step because it affects the performance of the following processing steps. Many SF’s (> 90%) in Indonesia utilize sulphitation process for cane juice purification, which includes continuous settling process in a clarifier tank to separate the clear juice from the scum. In general, the quality of clear juice is low, because it still contains suspended particles and macromolecules such as polysaccharides and proteins. The juice impurities will cause some problems in further juice processing steps, such as colour formation, viscous massecuites and finally lowering sugar recovery. Therefore, ultrafiltration (UF) membrane as a new technology is introduced to solve those problems. This technology has been applied and widely used in other industries such as HFCS (high fructose corn syrup) and pharmaceutical industry. This research project was conducted to study the performance of UF membrane in pilot scale as an in-line unitat SF hence the unit was able to process continuously. The objective of this research projects was to study the characteristics of permeate juice, retentate juice as well as the unit of ultrafiltration. The results showed that the quality of permeate juice was increased. It was showed that turbidity, colour and CaO content can decrease by 95%, 50%, 20 %, respectively and juice purity increases by 1.3 point. That means more sugar will be recovered when the cane juice from UF membrane is further processed. It is estimated that 4 ton more sugar with better quality is able to be recovered per day from SF with capacity 3000 ton cane per day (TCD). Furthermore,the results from membrane UF characteristic showed that flux achieves about 33 L/ m2.h , 44 L/ m2.h and 30 L/ m2.h at VCR 5, VCR 10 and VCR 15, respectively.

Keywords: technology, membrane, ultrafiltration, clear juices, sugar factory

Monday, February 16, 2009

Determination of Brix in the molasses sample

Bambang Eddy Santoso
Pusat Penelitian Perkebunan Gula Indonesia
Jl. Pahlawan 25 Pasuruan 67126. Telp. (0343) 421087. Fax (0343) 421178


Examination of the molasses brix determination has been carried out to intend the influence of measuring apparatus, dilution factors and calculating methods in the molasses brix, and to select the suitable treatment of its. The treatment consist of two of measuring apparatus (pycnometer and refractometer), six of dilution factors (1,5; 2; 3; 4; 5; 7,5 dan 10 times, w/w) and two ways of calculation methods [1rst calculation = (diluted brix + correction) x dilution factor and 2nd calculation = diluted brix x dilution factor + correction]; and each of its were repeated by 8 times (i.e. molasses sample from eight of different sugar factories). The result showed that the treatment of dilution factors and calculation methods influence molasses brix. The 1.5 to 2.0 of dilution factors by 1rst calculation method (86.59 to 86.74 %) have same result of molasses brix with 1.5 to 10.0 of dilution factors by 2nd calculation method (86.38 to 86.47 %), and the 3.0 to 10.0 of dilution factors by 1rst calculation method (87.53 to 88.85 %) have different result of molasses brix with the other treatment. In fact, the 1rst calculation method have constant result of molasses brix by all dilution factors. From the parsing on the above could was chosen suitable method for molasses brix determination i.e. using refractometer, 2 times (w/w) of dilution factor and could be calculated by 1rst or 2nd calculation methods.

Key words: Molasses brix determination, measuring apparat, dilution factor,
calculation method, chosen suitable method.

Monday, January 26, 2009


Tata Darmawan
Pusat Penelitian Perkebunan Gula Indonesia

Indonesian Sugar Research Institute


In general, the yield of ratoon cane is lower than that of plant cane. However, total cane production is influenced significantly by ratoon cane because ratoon cane area is three times more than the plant cane area. It can be explained that ratoon cane yield is low because of shallow root zone from the previous plant cane as well as poor cane cultivation maintenance. Shallow root zone in cane area is a result of formation of hardpan under top soil layer. On the other hand, standard maintenance of ratoon cane is conducted only 13% - 68%, due to limited of man power, as well as tractor and implements owned by sugar factory. The objective of this research is to design Multi Function Implement (MFI) to overcome the above mentioned problems. The MFI components consist of coulter, stubble shaver, subtiller, fertilizer applicator and covering device. The MFI is able to perform five kinds of activity at once. The research was conducted within 2 years (2005-2006). The result showed that MFI was well performed through adjusting both width and depth of its operation. Through these adjustments the coulter reached 20-30 cm of soil depth, while subtiller reached 25-40 cm. Cane stubble was unbroken until 0-7 cm of soil depth. The lowest dosage of fertilizer application was of 2.9-3.9 q/ha., while its maximum dosage could be applied through adjusting its sprocket. Maximum fertilizer dosage could reach until 2.3 times of its lowest dosage. Covering device could be adjusted on its height-basis for covering fertilizer strip carried out by the fertilizer applicator, as welll as for cane pre- earthing up. Moreover, the average working capacity of the MFI was 3.65-4.10 hrs/ha.

Key words : cane, ratoon maintenance, Multi Function Implement